Course devoted to Barchester Towers

We were delighted to hear about a new six week course on Barchester Towers (with some viewing of the BBC mini-series) starting in Lexington, Massachusetts.

The course will be taught by Tracy Marks, M.A. (Tufts University), continuing education instructor specializing in 19th century English literature.

The course begins on September 20, Friday afternoon, 12:30-2:30pm.

To find out more details and to register for the course go to:

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AGM, Annual Lecture and new map of Barsetshire

The Trollope Society AGM and Annual Lecture took place at the National Liberal Club off Whitehall in London on Thursday 25th October.

The lecture was delivered by Dr Yvonne Siddle on “The very clothes they wore: The male body dressed and undressed in Anthony Trollope’s Irish fiction”. This proved to be an interesting exploration of how Trollope described men, their physical attributes and how they dressed which offered a counter to the stereotypical focus of literature on the appearance of women.

The evening also marked the formal unveiling of a new map of Barsetshire based on research by Michael Williamson and illustrated by Simon Grennan (who produced the first graphic novel adaptation of Trollope – Dispossession, based on John Caldigate.

The map was unveiled by Society President, Lord Fellowes and his wife Lary Emma.

Copies of the map may be obtained from the Society’s website.

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Trollopes in Bloomsbury

Last Sunday the Trollope Society arranged a walk through Bloomsbury led by experienced London Guide Paul Baker. Starting from the British Library, we wove our way through the literary heart of London, taking in Trollope’s birthplace in Keppel Street along the way.

En route we passed where his fictional characters stayed while in London: Judd Street, where stood the Macpherson’s hotel in which Mr Kennedy shot Phineas Finn, Burton Crescent where Johnny Eames lodged and got into trouble with the landlady’s daughter Amelia Roper, Bedford Square where Lady Anna Lovel was lodged with Sergeant Bluestone, Keppel Street (again) where Lady Anna stayed with her mother, the home of the Mackenzie family in Gower Street and Bloomsbury Square where Harry Clavering took lodgings.

Perhaps the most surprising feature of the walk was the way that Trollope described these locations as unfashionable compared to the modern impression of the area as distinctly upmarket.

Perhaps a reflection on both these takes on the area can be gleaned from the scattering of blue plaques (the English Heritage equivalent of the graffiti “Kilroy was here”) along the route.


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Trollopes go to Prague

Some 153 years after Trollope visited Prague and was so entranced by the city that he set a novel there – the story of Nina Balatka “a maiden of Prague”, which features his most searing portrayal of the racism/anti-Semitism so prevalent at the time – the Trollope Society followed in his footsteps. At a weekend conference focussing on Nina Balatka, delegates enjoyed a walking tour of the city, during which, owing to the diligence of Michael Williamson, we were able to locate a house which closely fits the description by Trollope of that in which Nina lived:

Balatka House 2

“The Balatka’s house stood in a small courtyard near the river, but altogether hidden from it, somewhat to the right of the main street of the Kleinseite as you pass over the bridge. A lane, for it is little more, turning from the main street between the side walls of what were once two palaces, comes suddenly into a small square, and from a corner of this square there is an open stone archway leading into a court…[the] Balatka’s house occupied two sides of the court…Immediately over the little square stood the palace of the Hradschin…So immediately did the imperial hill tower over the spot on which Balatka lived that it would seem…that the colonnades of the palace were the upper storeys of some enormous edifice, of which the broken merchant’s small courtyard formed a lower portion. The long rows of windows would glimmer in the sheen of the night, and Nina would stand in the gloom of the archway counting them…”

On Sunday delegates performed a reading of Henry Ong’s play, based on the novel, in the peaceful garden of the hotel where they were staying. It seemed a fitting tribute to Henry who had hoped to attend the conference and who, sadly, died only the week before. The power of Trollope’s original story and Henry’s adaptation of it was evident even in an unrehearsed amateur read through and it provided a fitting close to the conference.



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Henry Ong Interview

Earlier this year I interviewed L.A. based playwright Henry Ong for Trollopiana (the magazine of The Trollope Society) and the interview appears in the current edition, published last month. Henry was a delight to interview and I was hoping to meet him in Prague this coming weekend where the Trollope Society is running a conference focused on Trollope’s novel Nina Balatka, set in the city, which Henry adapted for the stage. A reading of the play is to be a focal point of the conference. Sadly, Henry’s recent death  has deprived his husband Matthew, his family and friends in the L.A. theatre world and friends across the globe, including those who shared his infectious enthusiasm for Trollope, of a warm and loving personality.

As a tribute to Henry, I reproduce below his interview with me, so that those outside the Trollope Society membership can also share his thoughts on Trollope, stage adaptations and writing for the theatre.

What was the first Trollope novel you read and what inspired you to read that and subsequent novels?
The first Trollope novel I read was Rachel Ray. I remember liking it—in particular the quality of the writing and the vividness of the characters (what I subsequently learned to describe as Trollopian) so much I decided I would read all 47 of his novels!
Reading his works gave me a great fondness for Anthony Trollope who, I think, is one of the greatest of Victorian writers. His writing exhibits a keen observation of human life. While many writers deal with absolutes, Trollope colors his characters in more complex shades of gray.

You adapted Rachel Ray for the stage. What was it about that novel which attracted you to the idea of adapting it?
Prior to Rachel Ray, I had not heard of Trollope! When I read it on a long trip high in the clouds, I kept seeing the story unfold as a stage adaptation. I loved the romance between Rachel and Luke and how these two characters interacted with each other. Luke, in particular; how he was so taken by this country girl, and the two in the churchyard looking at the sky and the clouds and the blood-red setting…it was enough to make one giddy. And then the secondary characters, Mrs. Prime, Mrs Ray, Reverend Prong…they were all so distinctive; such fun roles for actors! It had to be adapted!!! I was vain enough to think I could do it!

Describe the process you go through in adapting a novel or other pre-existing work for the stage.
Once I make a decision to adapt, I have to think of a structure in which to tell it. A play is different from a novel, so it has its own dramatic structure. Each story has to be told differently. In Rachel Ray, it has to take a leisurely approach, so I started with a scene between Rachel and her mother, in which the main conflicts are introduced. Dolly (Rachel’s sister, aka Mrs. Prime) appears in a quick light shift in which she demands that Rachel accompany her to the Dorcas Society, but Rachel refuses and decided to remain home with mamma. Mrs. Ray, burdened with a rumor Dolly told her, struggles to reconcile her distrust of young men on the prowl and to discover from Rachel the truth behind the gossip. And, of course, the subject of all this uneasiness—the man from the brewery, Luke Rowan, himself.

You more recently adapted Nina Balatka for the stage. What was it about that novel which made it attractive to you to adapt?
Instinctively, I found the novel, which is quite different from Trollope’s other works, both confronting and challenging due to its religious theme. My background is Catholic and, later in life, I married a Jewish man. Thus, inherently I was drawn to it. One difference between Nina Balatka and Trollope’s other novels is the setting. Nina takes place outside of England: Prague, in particular. Second, in most of Trollope’s novels, the lovers meet; they encounter numerous hurdles; in the end, they are happily united. In Nina, the hero and heroine are already in love and engaged to each other when the story begins. No details are given as to how they have fallen in love. But the third, and most significant difference, is succinctly stated by Trollope himself in the opening sentence which is as iconic and self-explanatory as any in English literature, and I knew I wanted to keep that in the play: “Nina Balatka was a maiden of Prague, born of Christian parent, and herself a Christian. But she loved a Jew, and this is her story.”
Also with Nina Balatka, when I read it, I was fascinated by the Victorian perspective of Jews. At first, I thought it was peculiar to the times, this obsession with Jews as “different.” Victorian England is different from contemporary England, and surely folks today are different. However, with other events happening in the world right now, I’m not so sure. What happened in Charlottesville here in the U.S. was a wakeup call for me. There’s a lot of racism and hatred that surfaced, and I’m sure throughout the world as well. All of which makes Nina Balatka quite relevant for modern contemplation. Also, my husband is Jewish (although non-practicing), so I have a personal connection to the topic.
I also found it interesting that, although Trollope was already a renowned and established novelist in 1866, Nina Balatka was initially published anonymously. Trollope claimed that it was because he wanted to test his work without the advantage of his fame. Still, the question remains, why test it with this particular work? Could it be because of its controversial subject? Marriages between Christians and Jews were considered taboo in the 19th century and anti-Semitism was certainly not uncommon. Trollope, however, was not known to shy away from controversial subjects. In discussing Nina Balatka, the question of whether or not Trollope himself was anti-Semitic is a likely consideration. The contrasting ways in which the families of Nina and Anton react to the issue of inter-faith marriage may provide a clue into Trollope’s own thinking and I wanted to explore this on the stage.
Ultimately, it is hard for me to pin-point one exact reason why I decide to adapt a piece of work; with me, it comes from the gut. If I’m moved by the story (or by a particular character), I make an impulsive choice.

How does dialogue on the page of a novel differ from dialogue for a scene on stage?
A playwright has to be much more concise than a novelist, and be able to convey the essence of a scene succinctly, or the play will be interminable. In a novel, the author is able to interrupt dialogue with a description of the character’s internal thoughts. In a play, this can be achieved through asides, but frequently, a look or a gesture on the part of the character can say it all.

How do you adapt dialogue from a novel to a stage production?
I personally try to get the gist of what the dialogue is from the main source. Often, I will transcribe the whole conversation, then edit. Or, if memory serves me, I will just write what I remember of the scene, then return to the source material to see if it matches with the original. There are times when, for continuity, I make up some of my own dialogue to allow the conversation to run more smoothly. It varies from playwright to playwright, but a play has its own structure, so to try and transplant the book to the stage is not a good idea. A play has to have its own rhythm.

How do you balance being true to the author’s original with your interpretation for the stage?
I suppose an adaptor cannot help but bring his or her own interpretation to any adaptation. I am careful, however, to ensure that the actions and the words of the characters that should come across as the author intended.

Can you give examples from your plays Rachel Ray and Nina Balatka?
In Rachel Ray, for instance, Rachel is a young woman, very inexperienced in the ways of the world. Her confusion and her first flush of romance must be captured as Trollope wrote it, or I would have failed as a playwright. Luke Rowan is a brash young man; yet, there is a tender side to him, despite his stubbornness. I hope I have conveyed that throughout the play.
I also remember being struck by one particular exchange between Dolly (Mrs. Prime) and Reverend Prong— when he proposed to her. The language was so wonderful that if I could, I would have transcribed the entire exchange! But I wrote the scene from memory and had to pick what was especially remarkable to me (as the adaptor). When I consulted the novel, I was happy to see that I did indeed include what I thought was the essence of that exchange. Ditto, the break-up scene –the whole argument about women being able to have an opinion and the Jewish prejudice that surfaced on the part of Dolly—it was the one time that I thought Prong showed some compassion; unlike Dolly, he didn’t condemn Jews because of their faith.
Nina Balatka was completely a different ball game (or different ball of wax, as the English would probably say) for me. I was engrossed by the Jewish element. The fact that Nina fell in love with a Jew is the main theme of the story. Therefore, that informed the rest of the play. Some readers (as noted in our Big Read) found Anton Trendellsohn a rather unsympathetic and unlikeable character, not because he’s a Jew, but because he seems very unbending. He is raised quite differently from Nina, and has had distinctly separate life experiences. While I didn’t want to change his character, I had to find some “softness” in Anton. I may have added additional dialogue (or a monologue) to show his internal conflict.
Many of your plays seem to focus on the issues faced by outsiders of society. Is this a deliberate choice and what responsibilities does this place on you as a playwright to express the outsiders’ perspectives?
That is true. I do not only write adaptations. I am also motivated by injustice and the plight of oppressed people, collectively or individually. For instance, when I read about a group of Thai garment workers locked up in an apartment building, held captive, some for as many as seven years, I was moved to write Fabric. My most recent play, Ascent,is based on the story of a Chinese aeronautical scientist involved in the Space program in its early development. He was charged with being a Communist during the McCarthy era without any shred of evidence and deported back to his native China. It was a monumental blunder of the United States, one that gave rise to China as a nuclear power. Irony also intrigues me; hence Sweet Karma about a Cambodian refugee, a doctor who fled the atrocities of the Khmer Rouge, only to be fatally gunned down in the streets of Los Angeles. By the way, this doctor, Dr. Haing S. Ngo, was plucked out of obscurity to star in the movie, The Killing Fields, and it won him an Oscar as best supporting actor.
Deliberate? I guess it has to be deliberate, if it’s something I’m willing to commit months, even years in the development of the work. I do feel a responsibility to be as accurate as I can in telling stories of others. Hence, I do an inordinate amount of research in the topic to uncover the underlying truth behind the stories.

In your own life, living in the USA as a person who is not White, Anglo-Saxon, Straight Protestant, do you bring anything of your own experiences to the plays you write?
Every writer brings something of himself/herself in the story-telling. Especially in the choice of the work. But once one starts telling the tale, one has to be as objective as possible. There are other perspectives involved in a drama, and the closer one can get to express that differing perspectives, the more successful would be the playwright. It doesn’t mean you have to agree with those perspectives, but you have to show that others, besides the protagonist, also have views, and those views are as valid because they come from the person’s history. I never think of myself as non-White, non-Anglo-Saxon, non-straight Protestant; I think of myself as a human being and a person of the world. While I may carry a U.S. passport, I am really a citizen of the world. What I can say is, I believe, I have my own voice and perspective, but I hope that my experiences contribute to the overall understanding of the human condition.


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Rambles beyond railways

Anthony Trollope’s contemporary Wilkie Collins was, like his friend Charles Dickens, a great walker. The pair took themselves off on one occasion and hiked together round some of the remoter spots in Cornwall and Devon.

Wilkie recounted some of their adventures in a volume he entitled Rambles Beyond Railways, published in 1861. One place tbe pair visited was Minions, a tiny mining community on the edge of Bodmin Moor. Its most famous geological feature is the “cheesewring”, of which Wilkie said, “If a man dreamt of a great pile of stones in a nightmare, he would dream of such a pile as the cheesewring.”

Following in their footsteps in the 21st century I can record not only the cheesewring, pictured above, but also the passing of the mining industry. This engine house, below, sat atop a mine here and was constructed nearly two decades after Wilkie and Dickens passed through the village yet it was already abandoned and derelict before the middle of the last century, so brief was its heyday.

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Was Planty Pall named after an armour-piercing shell?

Plantagenet Palliser makes his entrance in The Small House at Allington, the fifth of the six Barchester Chronicles, where he makes a half-hearted play for Lady Dumbello  – Griselda Grantly as was. Published by Smith, Elder & Co in March 1864, this novel – perhaps uniquely even for Trollope, who notoriously cared little for the general prejudice against spoilers – summarises in three paragraphs at the end of chapter 55 the essentials of the plot of Can You Forgive Her? as it pertains to the marriage of Plantagenet and Glencora and the seeing off of the Burgo Fitzgerald risk to that marriage. Can You Forgive Her, also published later in 1864 by Chapman & Hall, is, of course, the opening salvo in the series of six political novels which succeeded the Barsetshire Chronicles as the cornerstone of Trollope’s writing for the remaining two decades of his life.

I was therefore struck by the date appended to an exhibit at the 100 ton Gun Museum in Gibraltar.

Palliser 3

Standing in an ill-lit corner of the museum was one of the shells which the gun was designed to fire. It was one of three types of shells used: high explosive, shrapnel and armour-piercing. It was an example of the last of these which stood 44 inches tall, and weighing a mighty 2,000 pounds (910 kilos), beneath an information board. This explained that the shell was an example of what was known as a Palliser shell, named after Captain William Palliser who had invented a radical new method of casting the shell with a point in an iron mould. This caused the point to cool more rapidly than the remainder of the shell giving it an extremely hard, though brittle, tip. This made it capable of penetrating more than two feet of wrought iron armour plating. Such a weapon was potentially devastating during an era in which the thickest armour on warships was no more than 18 inches thick.

And the year in which Captain Palliser devised this technique for the shell’s manufacture? It was 1863.

Is it too fanciful to speculate that Trollope might have heard discussion of this fantastic new weapon and its inventor and thought it an apt name for the character he was developing in his mind who would become the focal point and provider of continuity through the series of political novels he was about to embark upon?

Alas, of course, it is impossible to prove. And the fact that The Small House at Allington was already being serialised in the Cornhill magazine from September 1862 onwards, and was written earlier still, tends to weigh against the possibility. It is not beyond the bounds of possibility, though, that Trollope might make a last minute amendment to change a character name to a new, more attractively puissant and alliterative alternative that was topical and associated with the burgeoning strength of the Royal Navy underpinning the growing British Empire.

It would be nice to think it possible, at least.

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